8. Final Term Assignment of Academic Writing

Academic Writing Final-term Assignment

Dear all attendees of Scientific Writing Class.

To test all the skills you had practiced during the whole term of the class, write a complete scientific paper based on the data you got from a (real or imaginative) study. Try to provide the paper with as complete as possible sections (Abstract, Introduction, Method, Results, and Discussion). End the paper with the reference list in which you identify the sources you cited in writing the paper. Use JET’s Guidelines for Submission and Referencing Style to guide you formatting your paper.

Post your paper to the reply section of this post (not later than September 3, 2011).

Good Luck!

 

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3 thoughts on “8. Final Term Assignment of Academic Writing

  1. IMPROVING STUDENT’S VOCABULARY BY GAMES

    Lapang Ari Nazara
    Students of Non-Regular Class of English Teaching Study Program
    Faculty of Education and Teacher Training
    Christian University of Indonesia

    Abstract
    Christian University of Indonesia students are bored in vocabulary lessons because they did not change their learning habits, such as writing words on paper, trying to learn by heart or learning passively through the lecturer’s explanations. To help students find language classes, especially vocabulary lessons more interesting, and to achieve more from games, we conducted action research to find the answer to the question, “Do games help students learn vocabulary effectively, and if so, how?” Most academic reviews start from an assumption that games.
    However we singled out the component of games to study that in isolation. After reviewing academic opinions on this specifically focused matter, of which there are relatively few, we began action research which included applying games in our own classes, observing other lecturer’ classes, and interviewing both lecturers and learners so as to elicit students’ reactions, feelings and the effectiveness of games in vocabulary learning. The research shows they are effective in helping students to improve their vocabulary building skills.

    Introduction
    In learning a foreign language, vocabulary plays an important role. It is one element that links the four skills of speaking, listening, reading and writing all together. In order to communicate well in a foreign language, students should acquire an adequate number of words and should know how to use them accurately. Even though students realize the importance of vocabulary when learning language, most Christian University of Indonesia students learn vocabulary passively due to several factors. First, they consider the lecturer’s explanation for meaning or definition, pronunciation, spelling and grammatical functions boring. In this case scenario, language learners have nothing to do in a vocabulary learning section but to listen to their lecturer. Second, students only think of vocabulary learning as knowing the primary meaning of new words.
    Therefore, they ignore all other functions of the words. Third, students usually only acquire new vocabulary through new words in their textbooks or when given by lecturers during classroom lessons. For example, learners find many new words in a text and then ask the lecturer to explain the meanings. Forth, many Christian University of Indonesia learners do not want to take risks in applying what they have learnt. Students may recognize a word in a written or spoken form and think that they already “know the word”, but they may not be able to use that word properly in different contexts or pronounce it correctly.
    In recent years, communicative language teaching (CLT) has been applied in Christian University of Indonesia and from our own experience; it has shown its effectiveness in teaching and learning language. CLT is an approach that helps students be more active in real life situations through the means of individual, pair and group work activities. It encourages students to practice the language they learn in meaningful ways. In a CLT classroom, playing vocabulary games is one of the activities which require students to actively communicate with their classmates, using their own language. Thus the question we began to examine is, “Do games help students learn vocabulary effectively and if so, how?”

    Literature review
    Learners of English have to deal with unfamiliar vocabulary during their language acquisition. In order to learn and retain new words, learners should participate in different task-based activities in their classroom whether it is a guessing task, a describing exercise or conversation making. Such activities also include vocabulary games which especially focus on helping learners develop and use words in different contexts by making the lessons enjoyable. Therefore, it is necessary to explore whether students learn vocabulary effectively through games and how they learn it.
    Traditionally, vocabulary has not been a particular subject for students to learn, but has been taught within lessons of speaking, listening, reading and writing. During the lesson, students use their own vocabulary and are introduced to new words provided by the lecturer and classmates which they apply to classroom activities. For many learners of English, whenever they think of vocabulary, they think of learning a list of new words with meanings in their native language without any real context practice. A number of learners may share the same experience of looking up words in a bilingual dictionary to find their meanings or definitions when they encounter new words. They may even write down lines of new words without any idea of the real use of them in context. Working this way, after a short period of time, many learners may find out that learning vocabulary in lists does not satisfy themselves, and they think the cause for it is just their bad memorization, Gnoinska (1998:12). Research and publications have shown that this is not a very effective way to study. Decarrico (2001) states that words should not be learnt separately or by memorization without understanding. Moreover, “learning new words is a cumulative process, with words enriched and established as they are met again”, Nation (2000, p.6). Therefore, the “look and remember” way of vocabulary learning seems to be not very effective for learners of the English language.
    Furthermore, some other students may require lecturer to give meaning and grammatical function for words that they are not familiar. Learners just wait for lectures that control the lesson to provide new forms of words then they write those words in their notebooks or complete their exercises. They may use words they learn in the exact formats as the original patterns in which those words appeared. This kind of rote verbal memorization is good to a certain extent since it helps learners learn and use the correct form of words. However, according to Decarrico (2001), the vocabulary used in such context is rather simple because grammatical and phonologic aspects are emphasized; and as a result, the lexical aspect is neglected. In other words, learners just know how to use the vocabulary in an exact form, but they do not know how to use it with different shades of meanings in real life communication.
    Unlike the traditional method of learning and teaching, in a communicative language teaching (CLT) approach, learners are required to take part in a number of meaningful activities with different tasks. This is to improve learners’ communicative competence by encouraging them to be a part of the lessons themselves. Newton (2001) refers to this approach as a way that can enable learners to manage their vocabulary meaning and develop their communicative skills at the same time. Many experts of language teaching methodology also agree that playing games is a good way to learn vocabulary, especially in CLT class. With the use of games, the lecturer can create various contexts in which students have to use the language to communicate, exchange information and express their own opinions (Wright, Betteridge and Buckby, 1984). Huang (1996: 1) comes to a conclusion that “learning through games could encourage the operation of certain psychological and intellectual factors which could facilitate communication heightened self-esteem, motivation and spontaneity, reinforcing learning, improving intonation and building confidence.”
    Some experts have also figured out characteristics of games that make vocabulary learning more effectively. Lee (1995:35) lists several main advantages when games are used in the classroom, including “a welcome break from the usual routine of the language class”, “motivating and challenging” “effort of learning”, and “language practice in the various skills.” Ersoz (2000) holds that games are highly appreciated thanks to their amusement and interest. Lecturers can use games to help their students practice more their skills of communication. In addition, Uberman (1998) also affirms the helpful role of games in vocabulary teaching after quoting and analyzing different opinions of experts. From her own teaching experiences, Uberman observed the enthusiasm of her students in learning through games. She considers games a way to help students not only enjoy and entertain with the language they learn, but also practice it incidentally.
    In summary, games are useful and effective tools that should be applied in vocabulary classes. The use of vocabulary is a way to make the lessons more interesting, enjoyable and effective.

    Method
    To assess the effectiveness of learning vocabulary through games in the classroom, we want to know how students’ experiences help with their learning and what progress they gain. Specifically, can we apply games as an effective means to make students feel more comfortable and interested in learning the subject of vocabulary, which, in Christian University of Indonesia students, is usually believed to be boring rather than enjoyable?
    To achieve our goal, we focused on the perception and attitudes of our students as well as what students gained through their learning with vocabulary games. The plan involved conducting different kinds of games in our lessons so that we could see how students reacted to this method of learning vocabulary. We also wanted to find if there were any problems that occurred during the process of teaching. In addition, in line with research methodology and principles (Robertson, 2002) it was necessary to enrich our perspectives by observing some experienced teachers’ classes at HUFS, reviewing other lecturers’ lesson plans for games and interviewing some lecturers and students as well. Over a period of two weeks we tried to apply as many games as possible in our classes to learn from learners’ reactions whether they liked games or not and if games could help improve their existing vocabulary. Another way for us to gather data was to interview Christian University of Indonesia students orally so that we were able to better understand their expectations, problems and progress in their process of learning vocabulary. We also conducted a small post-class survey to elicit student’s feelings and their own experiences in learning vocabulary. A simple questionnaire was designed beforehand to help students understand clearly the purpose of the survey. Furthermore, experienced lecturers also helped us work out different ways of conducting effective vocabulary games by their lesson plans, handouts for games and their helpful advice. Further triangulation involved interviewing a student who had conducted similar research one year prior.

    Results
    After collecting data by observing CLT lecturers’ classes, interviewing students, and from our reflections of applying games in the classes we are teaching, we have come to some findings that will be helpful for teaching and learning vocabulary. The results will be displayed in three subsections, (i) students’ expectations and attitudes, (ii) students’ progress and iii) unanticipated problems.
    i. Students’ expectations and attitudes
    When being asked about the way of learning English vocabulary, most students in our classes at the Christian University of Indonesia said they just copied new words provided by lecturers or looked up words in the dictionary. Many of them marked or underlined words they did not know in their textbooks and noted the meaning in Christian University of Indonesia students. Some students noted the time they had to copy lines and lines of new words in their notebooks which were forgotten soon. “It was so boring. I hated learning new words that way!” Sometimes, students asked many questions regarding learning vocabulary like “Lecturer, how can I remember words and their meanings quickly and for a long time?”, “How can I use words properly in different contexts?”, “Can you tell me an easy and simple way to retain the vocabulary that I have learnt?” etc. (Khuat, Teaching journal, March, 2003). All of the learners expressed their wish to learn vocabulary effectively in more interesting ways than the traditional ways that they knew. What we wanted to know was whether vocabulary games worked or not.
    Most of the learners 20 (80%) were willing to join our games in groups and they tried their best to be the winners. The students especially liked such games as “Hangman” (guessing words that belong to the topic of jobs), animal squares (words puzzle) and advertisement poster competition (making an advertisement for a travel tour). Students collaborated quite actively in games that required group work, even the quiet students. They said that they liked the relaxed atmosphere, the competitiveness and the motivation that games brought to the classroom. This is because students have a chance to “use their imagination and creativity” during activities like games in the classroom; therefore they are motivated to learn, Domke (1991).
    However, there were usually one or two students who seemed to isolate themselves from the activities. When asked to join their classmates, some students were reluctant to move from their seats to play games with their groups, some others just said they simply did not like to play the games. Nevertheless, 20 (80%) students expressed their satisfaction after the games and many of them wanted to play more as they said those games were fun and they found games helpful for their learning. In general, it was encouraging for us to know that most of our students showed pleasant feelings and positive attitudes towards learning vocabulary through games.
    Moreover, we observed four lessons which applied games in providing and retaining students’ vocabulary by two CLT lecturer. In two different classes, we watched the game-like activity called “Selling and Buying Things (in which 10 students were shopkeepers selling fruits and food to the rest of the class. The shopkeepers had to sell all food they had and the shoppers had to buy all food they needed in the shortest time) in two different classes, and we observed the same students’ reaction in both classes. Before the game started, the lecturerrs tried to explain the game’ rules to students and gave some examples. Once students understood the rules, they quickly rearranged their seats and grouped as instructed. The classes became as noisy as a real market. Students tried to use as many phrases and words they had learnt as possible. Thus, through this kind of activity students may be able to remember their vocabulary better. We had a second opportunity to observe a class again. This time, the lecturer used a game called “Snakes and Ladders”. Students worked in groups of five and everyone went from the start and tried to reach the finish as soon as possible by answering correctly to questions which were prepared by the lecturer. After observing the game, we gave a small survey to 60% students with some questions about their feelings toward the game like; “Do you think this game is useful for you to remember words you have learnt?” and, “How can your classmates help you learn through the game?”… From this survey, we learnt that all 20 % students agreed that games help them a lot in vocabulary learning. Among them, 12 % students said that said that they could answer well two-thirds of questions in the game; and only one student could always respond to all questions.
    ii. Students’ progress
    Although our games were short activities and were applied to create a relaxed, pleasant learning atmosphere in the classrooms, we wanted games to be more than just fun. Games should also promote learning and teach students vocabulary as well. Therefore, it was important to know if our students made any progress in learning vocabulary through games. However, the action research was conducted in a limited time of two weeks, and it was hard to assess what our students had achieved because vocabulary learning is a cumulative process. However, students in our classes are gradually progressing in English vocabulary and games help them to learn new words and phrases that appear in the games and to recall their existing vocabulary at the same time. Generally, teachers can use the first part of a lesson, warm-up activity, for checking what students remember about the previous lesson or how many words of the topic they have. For example, a CLT lecturer conducted the game “Simon Says” to examine students’ vocabulary of parts of body. In the same way, we chose the game “Hangman” with the topic of jobs to check students’ memory of the vocabulary introduced in previous lessons. Our students got eleven correct answers out of twelve job cards which were passed out. Many students were really quick at answering and their answers were all accurate; others could not guess, but they could learn from their friends’ answers. Another example is the advertisement poster game. This is a game to check the students’ understanding of the reading exercise about holiday tours and to see if students can use similar vocabulary and structures to create a short piece of advertising for an interesting place. Students worked in four groups and all groups in the class produced quite nice, funny posters with short sentences using vocabulary of tourism and advertising. The classroom atmosphere was exciting as students discussed and chose the best poster of the class. In addition, our students revealed that games were very useful for them to enrich their vocabulary because they could learn from their classmates. Regarding the effectiveness of games, interviewed teachers reported that their students seemed to learn new vocabulary more quickly and retain it better when it was applied in a relaxed and comfortable environment such as while playing games. Through our post-game survey of one lecturer’s class, all students confirmed that their classmates helped them to remember words for the games. 16 % students said they could learn lots of new words from their classmates. Also, 18 % questioned students said that games are one of the most effective ways of learning vocabulary. Most students agreed that their use of vocabulary was becoming better since they actively joined games.
    iii. Unanticipated problems
    At first, we hypothesized that if vocabulary learning became more active with activities like games, students would not face any difficulties. However, journal reflections from our own experience, observations of other lecturers’ classes and interviews reveal that sometimes games create problems for both students and lecturers. Games cannot be successful if the lecturer does not explain the tasks and roles of students clearly in playing games. Fortunately, some of her students were able to find out what they had to do in the games and re-explained to their classmates. Since then, the games went smoothly. Using games in the classroom sometimes fails due to the lack of cooperation among members of the class. Games require all students’ involvement and they promote friendly competition, therefore, it is very important that students have a cooperative attitude. One attempt to conduct the game “Marvelous Cone Hat” in a class at the Distance Education Center was not successful. “I divided my students into three groups, each group was a team. While members of two groups were enthusiastic to join with others to win the game, members of the third group did not cooperate with each other. Students usually speak in their mother tongue to discuss instead of the language they are learning. From our own experience, it is hard to control the use of first language in classrooms when we use games as a tool to have students practice more their communicative skills in a foreign language. One unavoidable thing in utilizing games in English classrooms is that students, especially those who speak the same language, prefer using their first language to English.

    Conclusion
    Christian University of Indonesia students, learning vocabulary has been considered a boring subject for a long time and the traditional way of learning vocabulary by mere copying and remembering has shown to be less than effective. Meanwhile, games are also seen as a time-filling activity in most English classrooms. It is believed that games are just for fun and they have very little effect in teaching and learning. However, our research reveals that games contribute to vocabulary learning if they give students a chance to learn, practice and to review the English language in a pleasant atmosphere. From the research, we found that students are demanding a new way of teaching vocabulary, and they themselves are in search of a new way of learning this subject as well.
    Under such circumstances, games have been shown to have advantages and effectiveness in learning vocabulary in various ways. First, games bring in relaxation and fun for students, thus help them learn and retain new words more easily. Second, games usually involve friendly competition and they keep learners interested. These create the motivation for learners of English to get involved and participate actively in the learning activities. Third, vocabulary games bring real world context into the classroom, and enhance students’ use of English in a flexible, communicative way.
    Therefore, the role of games in teaching and learning vocabulary cannot be denied. However, in order to achieve the most from vocabulary games, it is essential that suitable games are chosen. Whenever a game is to be conducted, the number of students, proficiency level, cultural context, timing, learning topic, and the classroom settings are factors that should be taken into account. In conclusion, learning vocabulary through games is one effective and interesting way that can be applied in any classrooms. The results of this research suggest that games are used not only for mere fun, but more importantly, for the useful practice and review of language lessons, thus leading toward the goal of improving learners’ communicative competence.

    References
    Gnoinska. (1998). Teaching Vocabulary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Huang (1996). Discourse Analysis for Language Teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Nunan, D. (1991). Language teaching methodology: A textbook for teachers. New York: Prentice Hall.
    Richards, J.C. and Renandya, W.A. (Eds). (2002). Methodology in language teaching. Cambridge University Press.
    Domke (1991). Teaching Vocabulary through games: Cambridge University Press.

  2. Notification: I can’t display the data chart due to arrangement. Total pages:14. Thank you

    Reducing Behavior Problem in the Elementary School Classroom

    Introduction
    Teaching children, specifically elementary school students, is enjoyable for me. I like teaching children and I feel really blessed when I see their progress. This school year, I am teaching English of Grade 1 and Grade 3. I notice there are some differences of teaching these two levels. First graders still want to play and fool around with the teacher. They show that they can study during play time. During games or fun activities, they can be grouped with anyone in the classroom. On the other hand, third graders are a bit difficult to be given instructions. They tend to care about “surrounding”, such as they automatically look out the window if someone passes the classroom; or they directly give comment when one of their friends makes noise in the classroom. They are also stronger in friendship. They start choosing who they want and don’t want to play with. These facts are becoming third graders homeroom teachers to help students to study better by reducing the behavior problem. In this matter, teachers should acknowledge the barriers from both students and teachers’ side so the next step is that teachers design these some strategies to help students learning. There are three aspects observed in BPK Penabur International School – Sentul City, specifically grade three students to promote students positive behavior in order to get better learning atmosphere: issues arouse in classroom, classroom management, and teachers’ teaching techniques.

    Literature Review
    John Watson (1930) describes two majors of types of conditioning, they are classical conditioning and operant condition. Classical conditioning is one of behavioral training technique used when learning is naturally occurred by stimulus. It happens when one of the speaker deliver message and the other respond it naturally. Meanwhile, operant conditioning is a method which learning is occurred because of rewards and punishment. In this type, people learn the relation between a behavior and a consequence.
    Furthermore, B. F. Skinner (1990) tells that operant conditioning can be done through schedules of reinforcement. Schedule reinforcement is basically a set of rules that can reinforce learners to have certain behavior in learning process. There are positive and negative reinforcement involved. How and when to use them, it depends on the condition and the teachers’ principle; somehow the main goal of reinforcement is to improve students’ behavior.
    There are two types of reinforcement schedules:
    1. Continuous Reinforcement
    In this reinforcement, the educators learn that the desires behavior is reinforced every time it occurs. Basically, the schedule is used in stage of learning period in order to create a strong association between the behavior and the response. When the response is attached, reinforcement is witched to a partial reinforcement schedule.
    2. Partial Reinforcement
    In partial reinforcement, the response is reinforced only part of the time. Learned behaviors are acquired more slowly with partial reinforcement, but the response is more resistant to extinction. There are four schedules of partial reinforcement:
    1. Fixed-ratio schedules are those where a response is reinforced only after a specified number of responses. This schedule produces a high, steady rate of responding with only a brief pause after the delivery of the reinforcer.

    2. Variable-ratio schedules occur when a response is reinforced after an unpredictable number of responses. This schedule creates a high steady rate of responding. Gambling and lottery games are good examples of a reward based on a variable ratio schedule.
    3. Fixed-interval schedules are those where the first response is rewarded only after a specified amount of time has elapsed. This schedule causes high amounts of responding near the end of the interval, but much slower responding immediately after the delivery of the reinforcer.
    4. Variable-interval schedules occur when a response is rewarded after an unpredictable amount of time has passed. This schedule produces a slow, steady rate of response.
    Skinner also suggests some behavioral approaches to teaching:
    1. Breaking down the skills and information to be learned into small units.
    2. Checking student’s work regularly and providing feedback as well as encouragement (reinforcement).
    3. Teaching “out of context.” Behaviorists generally believe that students can be taught best when the focus is directly on the content to be taught. Behavioral instruction often takes the material out of the context in which it will be used.
    4. Direct or “teacher centered” instruction. Lectures, tutorials, drills, demonstrations, and other forms of teacher controlled teaching tend to dominate behavioral classrooms.
    Edward Thorndike (1949) suggests the drive theory which is based on theory of motivation. He says that responses closely followed by satisfaction will be attached to the situation and it reoccurs when the situation is repeated. if the situation is followed by discomfort, the connections to the situation will be weaker and the behavior of response is less to occur when the situation is repeated. There are three major components of motivation, they are activation, persistence and intensity. Activation involves the decision to show a behaviorlike attending a psychology class. Persistence is the continued effort toward a goal even though barriers could exist, like taking more psychology courses in order to earn a degree although it requires a huge scarification in time, energy and resources. The last is intensity. It can be seen in the concentration of someone pursuing a goal. For example, a student might study with less effort, while another student must study regularly, get involve in discussions and take advantage of research outside of class. Bloom (1956) mentions there are extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation. Extrinsic motivations are those that arise from outside of the individual and often involve rewards such as trophies, money, social recognition or praise. Intrinsic motivations are those that arise from within the individual, such as doing a complicated cross-word puzzle purely for the personal gratification of solving a problem.

    Methodology
    This study employed the qualitative methodology, which is based on questioner given to certain respondents who deal with the topic. Boeree (2005) says that qualitative method doesn’t involve measurement. It is basically collecting data needed to see the phenomena happening. There are some sources using this method, they are case study, experimental phenomenology, naturalistic observation, participant observation, and interviewing. This study requires participant observation by answering questioners.
    The data gathered in the odd semester of Academic Year 2011/2012. The respondents are third graders and the third grade homeroom teacher of BPK Penabur International School – Sentul City. There are 46 students and four homeroom teachers which evenly divided into two parallel classes, Cornelius 3A and Cornelius 3B. The aim of surveying and interviewing the third graders are to be able to observe my own students for the past three months. This study didn’t involve the other teachers, but homeroom teachers because they are the closest teachers during school hours. It’s more precise and proper to directly observe and interview them. Moreover, it’s the homeroom teachers who are going to apply the advice of this study.

    Results & Discussion
    There are two kinds of questioners given, one was for students and another was for homeroom teachers. Each of questioners related to students’ behavior in classroom and teachers’ teaching strategy and classroom management. The student’s questioner is divided into two major points: students’ behavior and teachers’ teaching strategy. And the teachers’ questioner is divided into three major points: students’ behavior, teachers’ teaching strategy, and classroom management.

    Students’ Behavior
    • Students’ point of view
    From data below, it was known that 26% of third graders students seldom had issue about friendship in the classroom. Another 26% of them said that they occasionally had the issues in classroom. And there were 48% of third graders said that they often had friendship issues in the classroom. The issues arisen were mostly about bad words and lies.
    The second issue arisen was about discipline. The data showed that 26% of third graders said that they never had any issues related to discipline. Around 33% of students said that they occasionally had issues related to discipline, especially about wrong day uniform and forgetting flag ceremony equipment, such as hat and tie. There were 33% of third graders said that they seldom had any issues related to discipline. The most issue came up related to discipline was about forgetting bringing agenda to school.
    The last issue brought up was about attitude in the classroom. There were 4% of third graders admit that they never made any noise in the classroom, always paid attention to teacher’s explanation and helped peers. Around 22% of students said that they seldom made any noise in the classroom, often paid attention to teacher’s explanation and corporate well with peers. There were 26% of students said that they often made noise in the classroom, seldom paid attention to teacher’s explanation and helped friends. The reasons they gave are they felt bored and they didn’t focus in the classroom. There were 48% of students said that they made violence occasionally which means that they occasionally made noise in the classroom, paid attention to teacher’s explanation and helped peers. The reasons were various, from they didn’t like the class situation to teacher’s explanation. But mostly they felt that class situation was not comfortable enough to study.
    The data showed that if students get involved in one of the issues above, 22% of grade three students preferred to solve it by themselves. Around 28% of correspondents chose to directly tell the teachers. And 50% of correspondents admit that they just kept quiet and let teachers didn’t know the issues. The first reason why they preferred to keep quiet is because they didn’t think the issues were important. The other reason was that they know its’ wrong and didn’t want the teachers get upset.
    When they informed the teachers about the issues, 11% of correspondents said that the teachers looked not care with what they said. Around 39% of correspondents said that at first teachers would help them, but then teachers seemed didn’t care. And 50% of correspondents said that teachers would do conference with the students involved.

    • Teachers’ point of view
    From data seen below, 25% of grade three teachers said that she would care to students’ friendship issues as long as it’s her teaching time or period. 25% of teachers said that she would care with students’ friendship issues and she handled it by giving them punishment. And 50% of teachers said that they would care with students’ friendship issues by holding conference and let students understand what they did and the logical consequences.
    Related to handling students’ discipline issues, 100% of correspondents agree that students should have conference with teachers and let them understand about the logical consequences and made them know not to do it again.
    Related to handling students’ attitude issues, 50% of correspondents said that they showed their caring by giving punishment to students. And 50% of correspondents said that they preferred to have conference and let students understand the logical consequences.
    Students’ behavior issues are related to class rules and agreement. All teachers agreed that class rules and agreement had to be set together with students. The purpose was to let students learn about responsibilities and understand the logical consequences of any violence. There was a teacher who said that the teachers had legitimate to add some rules as students need to know that teachers still have the power to manage students. Two teachers said that logical consequences mostly didn’t run well, so teacher needed to manage punishment instead of having conference to understand the logical consequences. The other two teachers preferred the violence should be discussed through conference which students and teachers sit together and talk about the main problem and find the solution. Then let students learn from the mistakes.
    There was time students broke the same rules and it seemed they didn’t understand what they did before. 25% of correspondents said that she would give a warning and hoped they made changes right away, otherwise they would get punishment. 25% of correspondents said that she would have conference and make sure the students would understand what’s going on and knew the consequences. And there were 50% of correspondents preferred to give both a warning and punishment to let students learn the lessons.
    From the result above, we can say that students dealt with behavior issues in the classroom mostly because of friendship, discipline, and attitude toward learning process. Teachers and students have set the class rules together and made agreement of either punishments or logical consequences. Somehow, some teachers still saw that giving punishments is still the right way to let students learn from mistakes instead of sitting together and talking about the main problem. The impact was that students preferred to keep quiet or solve the issues by themselves. From the survey it was clear that students didn’t really want teachers to get involved in their issues because they didn’t want to get punishments. Another thing was that students didn’t really understand why they needed to sit together and talk about the matters when they didn’t think it’s a big issue.

    Teachers’ teaching strategies
    • Students’ point of view
    The survey compiled data about how students view teachers’ teaching strategies in classroom. When students asked what they would do if they didn’t understand teacher’s explanation and assignment, around 40% of correspondents said that they preferred to keep silent and at the end they would ask their friends. 30% of correspondents said that they also preferred to keep quiet and at home they would ask their parents. And 30% of correspondents would directly ask the teachers and took note of it.
    When students could not complete or submit their assignment in time, 5% of correspondents admit that teachers would get upset so they preferred not to come to school. Around 23% of correspondents said that they would get punishment by staying at school to do the assignment. Around 27% of correspondents said that they would get punishment by writing their mistakes as many as teacher said. 45% of correspondent said that they would sit with teachers and tell what their barriers and the last they together with teachers find the solution.
    In survey paper, students had a list of lessons activities conducted in the classroom and they had to choose which activities they would like most. 13% of correspondents said that they would like to have project most because they could express their ideas and decorate the work. There were 33% of correspondents preferred to have experiments and/or hands-on activities because they could experience by themselves and explore internet more. And there were 54% of correspondents wanted to have teachers’ teaching aids and during study because they would help students to understand more instead of reading book only.

    • Teachers’ point of view
    In survey, grade three teachers had to choose five methods that they used most in the classroom. 25% of correspondents chose to give much homework as part of drilling technique. It was needed because students had to practice more to get better results. 25% of correspondents preferred to modify exercise from the book because students need to think out of the box. 25% of correspondents would review the concept understanding if the quiz result were out of expectation. There were 50% of correspondents still chose giving many exercises at school as part drilling, so students would get use to the question models. There were 75% of correspondents modified the way of concept delivered on the teacher’s guide textbook because they thought students needed to be introduced to many way outs. 100% of correspondents agreed to use teaching aids to get students’ attention and to let students understand the concept. 100% of correspondents agreed that students got involved actively in understanding concept more. And there were 100% of correspondents totally agreed to give students project to understand the concepts and to be creative.
    From the result above, it was found out that there were some methods are approved by students when they were able to lower their insecure feeling in receiving information to help learning process. Some methods may help students in learning process were to prepare teaching aids, projects and students’ involvement in class activities like experiments.

    Class Management
    Class management is one of important factor to support students’ learning process. In survey, teachers were asked about seat arrangement, display, and grouping.
    For seats arrangement, 50% of correspondents agreed to rearrange the seats to give new atmosphere to students, to assist teachers to apply certain teaching techniques, and they would arrange it whenever they had time. There were 75% of correspondents said that they placed students based on their needs, such as eyesight issues and peers issues. There were 75% of correspondents said that seats arrangement allow close friends to sit side-by-side as part of giving motivation.
    Teachers were suggested to display students work to give motivation and to make class environment more alive. There were 75% correspondents agreed to display 10-best work of students because it will motivate students to do better; change display once a week; display the more artistic and stand out work, and display after teacher’s giving comments.
    In making grouping, there were 50% of correspondents chose to mix group member based on their competence and interests; and 75% of correspondents preferred to make group based on previous scored.
    Based o survey, teachers tend to put stand out and creative students as priority and the others follow. Teacher also pays attention to students’ weaknesses in learning; yet teachers don’t really focus on them.

    Conclusion
    It is no doubt that motivation is very important to support students’ learning process. There are intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation is support that students get from themselves. Meanwhile extrinsic motivations is support that students get from surrounding.
    In elementary level, students mostly get extrinsic motivation which is from parents, teachers, peers, and environment. In this survey, it is seen that students didn’t really want to share with teachers, especially issues emerging because they were afraid of punishment. Punishment is apparently still dominant which we can see from how teachers set up class rules and agreement with students. The best thing is that teachers are friends for students. Teachers have to be firm and make clear boundaries when students need to obey teachers as the facilitators and guide in learning and to hold teachers as their friends to tell stories and difficulties.
    Teachers’ teaching strategies are accepted by students, especially using teaching aids, project, and hands-on activities. Yet, teachers also need to be firm in applying rules and agreement. Teachers needs to help students to be more responsibility and respect others, especially when teachers gave explanation.
    Class management is also important to motivate students. Arranging seats based on class activities and technique used, displaying their work, and making group based on competence and interests. What teachers must consider that all students have the right to have their work displayed. It would be good if teachers give encouraging comments on the work and display it. Teachers also need to be careful in making grouping and arranging seats because motivation factors need to be considered.

    References
    Bloom, Benjamin. (1956). Bloom’s Taxonomy of Learning Domains: The Three Types of learning. Journal of Bloom Taxonomy
    Boeree, George. (2005). Qualitative Methods. Journal of Research.

    Skinner, B. F. (1990). Behaviorism Theory. Journal of Behaviorism Theory.

    Thorndike, Edward. (1949). Behaviorism Theory. Journal of Behaviorism Theory.

    Watson, John. (1930). Behaviorism Theory. Journal of Behaviorism Theory.

  3. Dear Sir,
    Below is my Final Term Assignment of Academic Writing

    EFL Teachers’ Perceptions and Perspectives
    on Internet-Assisted Language Teaching

    Abstract

    Internet-based lesson is opposed to course book lesson. The active role of the teacher in searching for materials, adapting them to the level of the class, creating tasks to be used in the classroom. In this way, teachers become material developers, and the use of the internet is a great treasure trove of authentic, interesting and current materials to choose from. Of course, preparing such a lesson demands takes a lot of time and effort, that is why beginning online teachers are advised to use ready-made lesson plans before they start creating their own materials. At the same time, teachers are advised to treat Internet-based instruction as a means of supplementing coursebook instruction, help the coursebook by introducing new, interesting and current texts, relate the coursebook contents to the current moment, give students the opportunity to interact with students from other countries to improve their learning. This paper addresses the issue and reports the results of a study that examined PENABUR Primary, Secondary and Senior school teachers’ perceptions and perspectives on the use of the Internet for teaching purposes at Kelapa Gading, Jakarta. How they use the Internet, and what types of resources they use on the Internet. In-service teacher training courses for IALT are strongly recommended for further development and implemention in the Internet Assisted Language Teaching (IALT).

    Introduction
    Along with the impact of information and communication technology (ICT) on society, the Internet is widely used in many sectors. Since ICT for education first introduced at the end of 1990 in Indonesia, the Indonesian Ministry of Education has supported and provided some primary and secondary schools with multimedia computers, software programs and Internet connections to encourage the use of computers and the Internet for education in Indonesia(Adimphrana, 2005). As a result, the Internet has become a useful tool for Indonesian teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL) in schools as they can find and use a variety of resources and materials on the Internet. For this reason, Indonesian EFL teachers seem to have general interests in the use of the Internet for their teaching purposes. The internet is constantly growing in popularity and availability. Many people use the Internet daily, sometimes without even being aware of the fact that they use the internet on a daily basis. As noted by Warschauer (2000) the Internet has been reshaping many aspects of society such as on-line education, advertising, marketing and sales.
    Teachers not only access the Internet for finding resources for their classes but also supply their own materials, knowledge and ideas for other teachers via the Internet (Warschauer, 2000). For example, they can create homepages for the purpose of their lessons and put their materials on-line (Meagher, 2005). Muehleisen (2007) recommends ESL/EFL teachers to utilize the Internet in their classes for motivating students to use the English language outside the classroom and to make the language a part of their daily lives. Kern and Warschauer (2000) indicate that language learners with access to the Internet can potentially communicate with native speakers of English all over the world. They can communicate either on a one-to-one or a many-to-many basis any time they need from school, home or work. Therefore, it is not surprising that many ESL/EFL teachers have embraced Internet-Assisted Language Teaching (IALT) and have developed new ways of using the Internet with their students.
    The advancement of the Internet has created new ways of learning and teaching ESL/EFL. For instance, the Internet can be considered as an ideal learning and teaching tool because it offers authentic learning resources available without having to travel to English-speaking countries (Gonglewski, Meloni, & Brant, 2001; Singhal, 1997; Smith, 1997). Crystal (2007) notes that an estimated 85% of electronically stored information in the world is in English, so it is important for English language teachers to look at the social, economic, cultural and linguistic consequences of the global spread of the English language influenced by the development of the Internet. Warschauer (2000) also suggests that teachers should think about the implication of the use of the Internet for their classes because the Internet has become so widespread in schools with increasing use by both teachers and students. In addition, Warschauer (2000) put forward that teachers need to learn how to use Internet tools with support and encouragement from their teaching situations. In other words, teachers need to gain knowledge and develop skills to use the Internet effectively in order to maximize on-line teaching.

    Methods
    This study employed the qualitative method design. A 12 item questionnaire was administered to obtain quantitative input. The questionnaire was constructed to measure the respondents of EFL Teachers’ Perceptions and Perspectives on Internet-Assisted Language Teaching. To get the data the researcher used the questionnaire conducted in August 2011. 180 questionnaires were randomly spread to the PENABUR Primary, Secondary and Senior School Teachers at Kelapa Gading, Jakarta. The teachers (75 males and 45 males), the age range of the respondents was from 25 to 56 years. Their teaching experience ranged from 2 years to more than 25 years. But among 123 questionnaires returned to the researcher, only 120 were completely filled in. Thus, the valid data was taken only from those 120 respondents, and the 12 questions were clear and the completion of the tasks was feasible.

    Results
    A survey about the use of EFL Teachers’ Perceptions and Perspectives on Internet-Assisted Language Teaching was conducted in August 2011. The respondents were the Primary, Secondary, and Senior School Teachers of PENABUR School Kelapa Gading, Jakarta. The 120 respondents were classified into three group of teachers. First, those of Primary School Teachers/SDK 6 (30 persons); second, Secondary School Teachers/SMPK 4 (40 persons); and the third, the Senior School Teachers/SMAK 5 (50 persons). The respondents obtained are presented in the table below.

    Table 1: EFL Teachers’ Perceptions and Perspectives on Internet-Assisted Language Teaching

    No. Statement Teachers Responses
    SD D U A SA
    1 I often use the internet to browse Primary School Teacher 0(0%) 0(0%) 0(0%) 25(83%) 5(17%)
    Material resources Junior School Teacher 0(0%) 0(0%) 0(0%) 38(95%) 2(5%)
    High School Teacher 0(0%) 0(0%) 0(0%) 39(78%) 11(22%)

    The distribution of the respondents’ perceptions (as shown in the item 1 of the table 1 above) revealed that the teachers’ perceptions and perspectives on the use of the internet to browse material resources were high. Those of primary school teachers, 83% agreed, 17% agreed; those of secondary school teachers, 95% agreed, 5% strongly agreed; whereas those of senior high school teachers, 78% agreed, 22% strongly agreed. None of the respondents strongly disagreed. In this line with the average of 4,98 on a scale from 1 to 5 obtained from their statements to the use the internet to browse material resources were very high.

    No. Statement Teachers Responses
    SD D U A SA
    2 It’s easy to find ESL/EFL Primary School Teacher 0(0%) 0(0%) 5(17%) 23(77%) 2(7%)
    materials on the web Junior School Teacher 0(0%) 0(0%) 3(8%) 33(83%) 4(10%)
    High School Teacher 0(0%) 0(0%) 0(0%) 42(84%) 8(16%)

    The findings related to the EFL Teachers’ perceptions and perspectives on finding ESL/EFL materials on the web was easy for them. The finding revealed that those of
    Those of primary school teachers, 77% agreed, 7% strongly agreed; those of secondary school teachers, 83% agreed, 10% strongly agreed; whereas those of senior high school teachers, 84% agreed, 16% strongly agreed. None of the respondents strongly disagreed. In this line with the average of 4,86 on a scale from 1 to 5 obtained from their statements that it’s easy to find ESL/EFL materials on the web.

    No. Statement Teachers Responses
    SD D U A SA
    3 ESL/EFL websites are useful Primary School Teacher 0(0%) 0(0%) 1(3%) 19(63%) 10(33%)
    for teaching English Junior School Teacher 0(0%) 0(0%) 5(13%) 30(75%) 5(13%)
    High School Teacher 0(0%) 0(0%) 2(4%) 38(76%) 10(20%)

    The findings related to the EFL Teachers’ perceptions and perspectives on ESL/EFL websites are useful for teaching English revealed that those of primary school teachers, 63% agreed, 33% strongly agreed; those of secondary school teachers, 75% agreed, 13% strongly agreed; whereas those of senior high school teachers, 76% agreed, 20% strongly agreed. None of the respondents strongly disagreed. In this line with the average of 4,97 on a scale from 1 to 5 obtained from their statements that ESL/EFL websites are useful for teaching English

    No. Statement Teachers Responses
    SD D U A SA
    4 Students can be motivated Primary School Teacher 0(0%) 10(33%) 1(3%) 11(37%) 8(27%)
    in learning through the use of Junior School Teacher 0(0%) 0(0%) 3(8%) 35(88%) 2(5%)
    the internet in the classroom High School Teacher 0(0%) 0(0%) 8(16%) 40(80%) 2(4%)

    The finding revealed that students can be motivated in learning through the use of the internet in the classroom. But those of primary school teachers, only 37% agreed, 27% strongly agreed; those of secondary school teachers, 88% agreed, 5% strongly agreed; whereas those of senior high school teachers, 80% agreed, 4% strongly agreed. 33% of the respondents of primary school teachers disagreed they thought students of primary school children are still unruly. In this line with the average of 4,6 on a scale from 1 to 5 obtained from their statements.

    No. Statement Teachers Responses
    SD D U A SA
    5 Students will be more attentive Primary School Teacher 0(0%) 0(0%) 0(0%) 28(93%) 2(7%)
    in Internet-Assisted English Junior School Teacher 0(0%) 0(0%) 0(0%) 35(88%) 5(13%)
    language teaching classes High School Teacher 0(0%) 0(0%) 0(0%) 50(100%) 0(0%)

    The distribution of the respondents’ perceptions (as shown in the item 5 of the table 1 above) revealed that the teachers’ perceptions and perspectives on the students that they will be more attentive in internet assisted English language teaching classes were very high. Those of primary school teachers, 93.3% agreed, 7% agreed; those of secondary school teachers, 88% agreed, 13% strongly agreed; whereas those of senior high school teachers, 100% agreed. None of the respondents strongly disagreed. In this line with the average of 4,87 on a scale from 1 to 5 obtained from their statements to that students will be more attentive in internet assisted English language classes.

    No. Statement Teachers Responses
    SD D U A SA
    6 I am competent to use the Primary School Teacher 3(10%) 0(0%) 15(50%) 6(20%) 4(13%)
    the internet based materials Junior School Teacher 6(15%) 3(8%) 12(30%) 14(35%) 5(13%)
    in the classroom High School Teacher 11(22%) 9(18%) 7(14%) 23(46%) 0(0%)

    The distribution of the respondents’ perceptions revealed that almost half of them are not competent in using the internet-based materials in the classroom. Those of primary school admitted, 50% were uncertain, 20% agreed; those of secondary school teachers, 35% agreed, 13% strongly agreed; whereas those of senior high school teachers, 46% agreed. The distribution revealed that more than half of EFL teachers are not competent enough.

    No. Statement Teachers Responses
    SD D U A SA
    7 I need training to improve Primary School Teacher 0(0%) 0(0%) 0(0%) 26(86.7%) 4(13%)
    internet literacy skills Junior School Teacher 0(0%) 0(0%) 0(0%) 26(65%) 14(35%)
    High School Teacher 0(0%) 0(0%) 7(14%) 35(70%) 8(16%)

    The distribution of the respondents’ perceptions revealed that almost most of them didn’t need training to improve their internet literacy skills. Those of primary school admitted, 86.7% agreed, 13% agreed; those of secondary school teachers, 65% agreed, 35% strongly agreed; whereas those of senior high school teachers, 70% agreed.

    No. Statement Teachers Responses
    SD D U A SA
    8 I would like to use internet Primary School Teacher 0(0%) 0(0%) 4(13%) 25(83%) 1(3%)
    based materials and activities Junior School Teacher 0(0%) 0(0%) 6(15%) 14(35%) 20(50%)
    in my classroom as much as High School Teacher 0(0%) 0(0%) 3(6%) 37(74%) 10(20%)
    as possible

    The findings related to the EFL Teachers’ perceptions and perspectives on the use internet-based materials and activities in their classrooms revealed that those of primary school teachers, 83.3% agreed, 3% strongly agreed; those of secondary school teachers, 35% agreed, 50% strongly agreed; whereas those of senior high school teachers, 74% agreed, 20% strongly agreed. None of the respondents strongly disagreed. In this line with the average of 4,98 on a scale from 1 to 5 obtained from their statements that the willingness of teachers to use the internet in their classrooms was very high.

    No. Statement Teachers Responses
    SD D U A SA
    9 Web surfing is the most Primary School Teacher 0(0%) 0(0%) 2(7%) 23(76.7%) 5(17%)
    activity I often do on the Junior School Teacher 0(0%) 0(0%) 2(5%) 20(50%) 18(45%)
    the internet High School Teacher 0(0%) 3(6%) 0(0%) 42(84%) 5(10%)

    The findings revealed that the main activity on the internet did by the teachers was web surfing. Those of primary school teachers, 76.7% agreed, 17% strongly agreed; those of secondary school teachers, 50% agreed, 45% strongly agreed; whereas those of senior high school teachers, 84% agreed, 10% strongly agreed. None of the respondents strongly disagreed. In this line with the average of 4,98 on a scale from 1 to 5 revealed that web surfing was the most activity did by the teachers.

    No. Statement Teachers Responses
    SD D U A SA
    10 I enjoy chatting / texting Primary School Teacher 0(0%) 7(23%) 6(20%) 15(50%) 2(7%)
    via social network Junior School Teacher 1(3%) 3(8%) 2(5%) 20(50%) 14(35%)
    High School Teacher 5(10%) 3(6%) 8(16%) 23(46%) 6(12%)

    The distribution related to the EFL Teachers’ perceptions and perspectives on the enjoy chatting/texting via social network revealed that those of primary school teachers, 50% agreed, 7% strongly agreed; those of secondary school teachers, 50% agreed, 35% strongly agreed; whereas those of senior high school teachers, 46% agreed, 12% strongly agreed. But many of them didn’t enjoy chatting / texting via social network.

    No. Statement Teachers Responses
    SD D U A SA
    11 I often do more than one Primary School Teacher 0(0%) 2(7%) 5(17%) 20(66.7%) 3(10%)
    activity on the internet, like : Junior School Teacher 3(8%) 6(15%) 5(13%) 14(35%) 12(30%)
    playing games, emailing, High School Teacher 1(2%) 2(4%) 3(6%) 43(86%) 1(2%)
    searching online dictionaries

    The distribution related to the EFL Teachers’ perceptions and perspectives on doing more than one activity on the internet like playing games, emailing, searching online dictionaries revealed that those of primary school teachers, 66.7% agreed, 10% strongly agreed; those of secondary school teachers, 35% agreed, 30% strongly agreed; whereas those of senior high school teachers, 86% agreed, 2% strongly agreed. But a few of them strongly disagreed doing more than one activity while they went on line.

    No. Statement Teachers Responses
    SD D U A SA
    12 I talk to my pen friends Primary School Teacher 12(40%) 8(27%) 5(17%) 2(6.7%) 3(10%)
    through web cam Junior School Teacher 23(58%) 4(10%) 5(13%) 3(8%) 5(13%)
    High School Teacher 24(48%) 6(12%) 8(16%) 5(10%) 7(14%)

    The distribution of the respondents’ perceptions (as shown in the item 12 of the table 1 above) revealed that the teachers’ perceptions and perspectives on talking to their pen friends through web cam were very low. Those of primary school teachers, only 6.7% agreed, but 40% of them strongly disagreed; those of secondary school teachers, 8% agreed, 58% strongly disagreed; whereas those of senior high school teachers, 10% agreed, but 48% of them strongly disagreed. In this line with the average of 2.64 on a scale from 1 to 5 obtained from their statements to that most of teachers strongly agreed to talk to others via web cam, probably due to the unavailability of equipment or maybe they felt embarrassed to talk.

    Discussion
    Overall, PENABUR primary, secondary, and senior high school teachers’ attitudes toward the use of the Internet for teaching purposes were positive. Teachers believed that Internet resources could be used for teaching purposes. The teachers generally agreed that the use of the Internet could be an effective way of teaching EFL because the Internet provides students with a rich learning environment where they can find authentic resources for learning the English language. The teachers considered the Internet as a useful EFL teaching tool and pointed out that there are a great number of Websites containing various types of learning materials. They also thought that students could improve communication skills on the Internet. At the same time, they expressed the view that they should learn ways of using the Internet for their students who are quite familiar with the Internet.
    Most teachers in the study believe that the Internet can be an effective tool for finding authentic resources, sharing information, communicating with target language speakers and motivating students. However, they seem to have difficulties in using the Internet in the classroom. Contextual reasons for not using the Internet include limited computer facilities, limited class hours, inappropriate class size and limited technical support. Unexpected Internet disconnections can be also a problem. If the Internet is disconnected in the classroom without any notice, the class may be disorganized unless the classroom teacher has backup lesson plans. Teachers of primary school teachers also need to pay extra attention to students when they have more than 40 students accessing the Internet in a classroom. Students may even visit irrelevant Websites during the class. It would be very difficult for a teacher to prevent this kind of behaviour unless either the class has a small number of students or there is a teaching assistant. Finding or creating well-designed Internet resources or materials can be also time-consuming to teachers.
    It seems, nevertheless, that PENABUR primary, secondary, and senior high school EFL teachers are aware of the advantages of using the Internet in the classroom, seeing the Internet as an invaluable source of useful information for teaching their teenage students. Social changes and student expectations arising from the rapid development of the Internet request teachers to make effective use of the Internet in schools. Regardless of the difficulties they have in their teaching situations, therefore, teachers need to find ways of working around the situations to provide better EFL instruction. The potential of the Internet can be enormous if they make efforts to find and use Internet resources with positive attitudes.
    For the effective implementation of IALT, PENABUR EFL teachers need to be competent enough to use Internet-based materials in the classroom. As suggested by the teachers responses to the questions of their competency in the use of Internet-based materials and their knowledge of the integration of Internet resources into existing curricular, in-service training courses for IALT should be offered to teachers who need to learn how to use Internet resources, how to create or select Internet-based activities, how to plan Internet-assisted lessons and how to integrate Internet resources into actual classroom teaching. Through the training, which helps them understand pedagogical and technical aspects of IALT, teachers would be able to engage in their professional development and, as a result, their interest and willingness to use Internet-based materials and activities in the classroom could be well responded and constructively put into practice.

    Conclusion
    The study demonstrated that teachers had positive views on the use of the Internet for teaching EFL when they had difficulties in finding appropriate teaching materials and in integrating Internet resources into their curriculum. The difficulties seemed to be caused by the huge amount of information available on the Internet and limited time to seek useful information. Another difficulty reported by the teachers is the organization and management of IALT classes. When teachers use the Internet in the classroom, they need carefully selected Internet resources. They also needed to address issues of controlling students’ access to lesson-related Websites, managing class time and solving technical problems. To reduce the difficulties, teachers are required to develop Internet literacy and integration skills for themselves or through teacher training courses for IALT. In conclusion, what emerges upon reflection on the findings of the study was recognition of the relationship between the Internet and EFL teaching with possibilities of resolving operational issues such as matching teaching and training needs and combining Internet resources into established EFL teaching resources for the effective use of the Internet in EFL classrooms.

    References
    Adimphrana, K. (2005) Intelligence of Teacher. Education Innovative Based on ICT in Indonesia
    Retrieved September 1, 2011 from http: http://kwarta.wordpress.com/2005/2005/02/12/
    education-innovative-based-on-ict-in-indonesia/
    Crystal, D. (2007). English as a global language. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Gonglewski, M., Meloni, C., & Brant, J. (2001). Using e-mail in foreign language teaching:
    Rationale and suggestions. The Internet TESL journal, 7(3). Retrieved September 1, 2011,
    http://iteslj.org /Techniques/Meloni-Email.html
    Kern, R., & Warschauer, M. (2000). Introduction: Theory and practice of network-based
    language teaching. In M. Warschauer & R. Kern (Eds.), Network-based language teaching: Concepts and
    practice (pp. 1-19). New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Meagher, M. E. (2005). Learning English on the Internet. Educational leadership, 53(2), 88-90.
    Muehleisen, V. (2007). Projects using the Internet in college English classes. The Internet TESL journal, 3(6), 1-7.
    Warschauer, M. (2006). Computer learning networks and student empowerment. System, 24(1), 1-14.

    I am sorry sorry if the texts are less neat.

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